Through muscle contraction, electrotherapy also squeezes the venous blood towards the heart, draining liquids that, in the absence of activity, ‘stagnate’ further and feed the suffering of the tissues affected by trauma. Muscle pump activity induced by electrostimulated contraction will reduce the effects of edemas from venous and lymphatic stasis — linked to trauma and immobilisation — to promote the recovery of injured limbs.
One of the difficulties facing the validation of TENS is the limitations of a placebo group within trials. This is because during the application of TENS, it is accompanied by an easily observed ‘sensation’ as the current is felt passing through. The synergistic effects of ultrasound and TENS therapies together have also been noted, although further research into this area is required.